Initial Finding of CYP9M10 Gene Haplotype in Culex Quinquefasciatus-Permethrin Resistant Isolate from Natural Population of Central Java Province, Indonesia

Irfanul Chakim*, Rahayu Astuti, Sayono Sayono
Department of Epidemiology, Faculty of Public Health, Universitas Muhammadiyah Semarang, 50273 Semarang, Indonesia

© 2018 Chakim et al.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Department of Epidemiology, Faculty of Public Health, Universitas Muhammadiyah Semarang, Jl. Kedung Mundu Raya 18, 50273 Semarang, Indonesia; Tel: +6282235657394; E-mail:



Culex is a mosquito genus which widely distributed in the tropical, subtropical and temperate climates, both in urban and rural areas all over the world. Culex mosquitoes, especially Culex quinquefasciatus, are the main vector of filariasis. Thus, public health prevention is mainly directed to control these species and the chemical control is the most widely used approach. However, unfavourable effects of such control to the C. quinquefasciatus population have been known in the form of resistance and emergence of this resistance to various insecticides has been reported in many countries.


The metabolic resistance in mosquitoes occurs through the expression of P450 gene family. One of the P450 families is CYP9M10 gene. Partial analysis of the CYP9M10 gene sequences C. quinquefasciatus mosquito reveals the differences between susceptible and resistant alleles. This study was started from the bioassay test of C. quinquefasciatus mosquitoes from five filariasis-endemic areas in Central Java and was continued on the molecular analysis of CYP9M10 gene.


The results of resistance analysis using bioassay test showed that the C. quinquefasciatus mosquito which has been isolated in Central Java showed high levels of resistance against permethrin 0.75% when mortality rates ranged from 4.8% to 21.6%.


On the other hand, the molecular analysis revealed three types of haplotypes. The third haplotype had the highest frequency and it exhibited sequence pattern change in the CYP9M10 gene altering the susceptible strain into a resistant one.

Keywords: Culex quinquefasciatus, CYP9M10 gene, Permethrin resistant, Natural population, Central Java, Filariasis.