This is a single-site retrospective chart review study that sought to assess risk factors associated with antibiotic resistance and the likelihood of susceptibility to non-carbapenem antibiotics in ESBL-producing bacteria in positive cultures in pediatric patients.

Materials and methods:

ESBL-producing bacteria were present in 222 culture-positive cases. Among 177 isolates tested, 85.9% had susceptible breakpoint to piperacillin-tazobactam. Aminoglycoside susceptibility varied with low percentages among tobramycin and gentamicin (36.9% and 50.9%, respectively), but high susceptibility for amikacin (95.5%). Most isolates (77%) were susceptible to at least one oral option, but individual susceptibilities were low. Risk factors associated with ESBL acquisition were not independently associated with antibiotic resistance to amikacin, piperacillin-tazobactam, or combined oral options, sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim, ciprofloxacin, and amoxicillin-clavulanate.


When determining empiric treatment, for an isolate identified as ESBL prior to finalized susceptibilities, piperacillin-tazobactam may be a carbapenem-sparing antibiotic option to consider based on local resistance data. Oral antibiotic options may be appropriate in non-critical patients.

Keywords: Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase (ESBL), Carbapenem-Sparing, Piperacillin-tazobactam, Sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim, Ciprofloxacin, Amoxicillin-clavulanate.
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